High-performance liquid chromatography is the ideal method for analyzing various solutions in different fields. This machine, however, requires HPLC spring energized seals that adhere to strict guidelines with slight variation.
Different Liquid Chromatography Types
There are a few different types of liquid chromatography. The primary liquid chromatography types include high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), preparative HPLC, and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography.
High-performance liquid chromatography is used in multiple different industries. HPLC is found in food science, drug development, and forensic analysis. It is used to separate compounds and used for quantitative and qualitative analysis.
Preparative HPLC is used in purification applications as it requires a higher flow rate. This liquid chromatography is also used to separate and collect high-purity compounds. It is also used for large quantities of compounds needed for evaluation and analysis.
Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) is similar to HPLC. It is used to separate different constituents of a compound and to identify and quantify the different components of a mixture.
HPLC pumps operate in conditions with variable flow rates and small shaft diameters. They have tight leak criteria and operate under a wide range of pressures. HPLC pumps have a medium-speed reciprocation.
Seals in HPLC pumps must withstand the solvents used to separate compounds dissolved in the liquid sample. Solvents used in HPLC include
- MeOH (Methanol)
- ACN (Acetonitrile)
- H2O (Water).
The expected lifetime for seals in HPLC pump environments is a minimum of one million cycles. Seals may last longer depending on the flow rate, pressure, and media.
HPLC seals prevent leaks from occurring. Should the mile phase lack into the back of the pump, it will impact consistency, accuracy, and pump precision. To effectively prevent leaks, seals should have effective leak resistance in pressures up to 20 kpsi.
The geometry of the seal is an important factor. For HPLC pumps, a flange design helps reduce the pump’s pulsation. HPLC spring energized seals have a longer seal ID lip and a polymer backup ring to increase the amount of contact stress.
UHPLC seals have a non-flange design and a shorter seal ID lip. Instead of a polymer backup ring, it uses a ceramic or metal backup ring. These seals have a concave back for higher-pressure distribution.
HPLC pumps’ seals have a PTFE or UHMW PE jacket. The UHMW PE material is used in systems with pressures greater than ten kpsi. UHMW PE is an FDA-compatible material for both food and pharmaceutical analysis.
PTFE jackets are the most chemical resistant of the common materials. The PTFE jackets are filled with graphite or polyimide. These fillers are heat and wear-resistant and work well in liquids and steam.
Sealing performance factors are affected by the different surfaces in the HPLC pump. The housing surface has a suggested static sealing surface between 9.1 to 14.5 μin Ra.
On the plunger surface, a smoother surface is best. For virgin PTFE or UHMW PE, a minimum shaft hardness is 40Rc. The suggested dynamic surface is 7.3 – 14.5 Ra μin.
|Medium||Dynamic Surface||Static Surface|
|RMS||Ra μin||RMS||Ra μin||RMS||Ra μin|
|Liquids||8 to 16||7.2 to 14.4||8 to 12||7.2 to 10.8||16 to 32||
14.4 to 28.8
Plunger alignment needs to have a minimal shaft-to-bore misalignment with tight concentric guidance between the wash body and pump head. For best sealing performance, the shaft-to-bore misalignment should be kept to a minimum.
|Shaft To Bore Misalignment at the Seal Area|
|Shaft Diameter (in inches)||Shaft to Bore Misalignment (in inches)|
|0.000 – 0.750||0.0020|
|0.751 – 1.500||0.0025|
|1.501 – 3.000||0.0030|
|3.001 – 6.000||0.0035|
|6.001 – 10.000||0.0045|
HPLC Spring Energized Seal Recommendations
The HPLC spring energized seal requirements should be considered during the pump design process. Designers should collaborate with seal engineers early in development. Contact us today to get a quote on your next custom seal needs.