by Sara McCaslin, PhD Sara McCaslin, PhD No Comments

The Basics of PVDF

Kynar PVDF (property of Arkema) is a high purity polymer that combines extreme-temperature performance, easy manufacturability, and durability in some of the harshest environments. 

What is PVDF?

PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride or polyvinyl fluoride) is a fluorinated thermoplastic resin that is classified as a specialty polymer whose brand names include Kynar (Arkema), KF (Kureha), and Solef or Hylar (Solvay). This engineering polymer can often be found in environments that involve high purity, hot acid, extremely high temperatures, and/or radiation. 

Where is PVDF Used?

PVDF is used extensively in a wide range of industries. Semiconductor manufacturing makes use of PVDF’s ultra-pure status and its ability to perform in harsh environments that may involve extreme temperatures and aggressive chemicals. Electronics and electricity applications depend on PVDF’s outstanding low smoke emission and fire-resistant properties along with electrical properties for use as wiring insulation.

PVDF’s ability to handle radiation makes it an excellent choice for nuclear waste handling, and its high-temperature performance and chemical compatibility lends itself readily to the oil and gas industry. Because PVDF has excellent high-temperature performance, high purity, and low permeability, excellent strength, and chemical compatibility, it is used extensively in chemical processing.

Purity and FDA approval have made it a popular choice in food and beverage packaging and processing as well as pharmaceutical processing. It is often used in connection with water and wastewater management for similar reasons. PVDF is also used extensively in the medical market and healthcare industry where it is used as a biomaterial for medical textiles, such as hernia meshes, as well as for medical sutures.

The transportation and energy market has begun using PVDF as a binder for cathodes and anodes in HEV/EVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicle/Electric Vehicle). Its chemical compatibility and anti-corrosion properties make it useful as a barrier liner for fuel lines and tanker trailer lines. Aviation also makes ample use of PVDF for wiring harnesses and general coatings

How is PVDF Used?

PVDF is commonly used for several specific types of applications across industries:

  • Pump assemblies
  • Heat exchangers
  • Tanks and vessels
  • Nozzles
  • Sensors and actuators
  • Fittings, pipes, tubing, and valves
  • Membranes, including microfiltration membranes
  • Filters and filter housings
  • Liners and films
  • Cable jacketing and harnessing
  • Biocompatible materials

Key Properties of PVDF

As alluded to in previous sections, PVDF possesses several features of interest to engineers:

  • Extremely high purity with low permeability
  • FDA compliant and non-toxic
  • Excellent heat resistance and thermal stability 
  • Good mechanical properties
  • Resistant to a wide range of aggressive chemicals
  • Resistant to UV exposure, ozone oxidation reactions, and radiation
  • Resistant to the growth of microorganisms
  • Excellent burn characteristics 
  • Good manufacturability
  • One of the lowest melting points of commercial fluoropolymers
  • Excellent electrical properties
  • Excellent abrasion resistance
  • Low density (1.78 gm/cm3)
  • Recyclable

In addition, PVDF offers excellent abrasion resistance, is lightweight, and can be recycled. Also, note that there are additives available for PVDF to enhance its properties and its melt processability.

Purity and FDA Compliance

In addition to being an extremely high purity polymer, PVDF is both FDA compliant and non-toxic while exhibiting very low gas and liquid permeability.

Heat Resistant and Thermal Stability

One of the outstanding features of PVDF lies in its excellent performance, chemical stability, and dimensional stability in high-temperature environments with a service temperature rating of up to 300 F.

Mechanical Properties

Among the outstanding mechanical properties possessed by PVDF are good deflection, tension, compression, and torsion when compared to other fluorinated polymers. In addition, its low rate of water absorption (0.4%) means that it will remain dimensionally stable (not swell) when in a moisture-rich environment. In addition, PVDF has excellent impact strength.

Chemical Compatibility

PVDF is known for its excellent chemical compatibility that includes weak and strong acids (including mineral and organic); alcohols; aromatic and aliphatic solvents; weak bases; hydrocarbons; halogenated compounds; ionic and salt solutions; and oxidants. Its primary weaknesses are caustics, esters, strong bases, and ketones. 

Microorganism Growth

The surface of PVDF is highly resistant to the growth of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and mold. It is also resistant to weathering, grime, and even graffiti (which is why it is often used in the architectural industry).

Burn Characteristics

PVDF has excellent flame and smoke properties, including UL 94 V-0 rating indicating it is both non-flammable and self-extinguishing along, or more specifically “Burning stops within 10 seconds on a vertical specimen; drips of particles allowed as long as they are not inflamed.” In addition, certain grades of PVDF also possess an excellent flame spread/smoke developed rating of 25/50 (when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84).


PVDF is also highly manufacturable and melt-processable, lending itself to precision machining, rotomolding, compression molding, injection molding, and extrusion as well as subsequent welding and fabrication. Its ability to be used in molding is primarily due to its low melting point of 352 F, compared to PTFE at 621 F or FEP at 517 F.

Electrical Properties

In addition to electrochemical stability, PVDF also possesses a very high dielectric constant (280 volts per meter) and a high piezoelectric constant. In fact, it possesses both piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties.


One of the polymers we work with here at Advanced EMC is PVDF Kynar made by Arkema. If you are interested in Kynar, have questions about its usage and processing, or need a quote, feel free to contact us and we will have one of our experts respond right away.

by Sara McCaslin, PhD Sara McCaslin, PhD No Comments

Spring Energized Seals for Use in Food Processing, Pharmaceutical, and Medical Applications

Spring-energized seals are a popular choice for applications that involve food, dairy, and medicinal applications, as well as medical devices. However, not just any polymer can be used for these seals because of the risk of contamination. In this blog post, we are going to review why FDA approved materials are so important, and then talk about the three most common engineering polymers that are used with spring-energized seals.

FDA Approved Materials

The FDA CFR 177 is contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations and deals with indirect food additives in the form of polymers. The term indirect additive refers to something that inadvertently makes its way into food, pharmaceuticals, or inhaled substances (i.e., via an inhaler or oxygen machine).

Real-world applications where FDA approved materials are of concern include filling and mixing equipment for food and beverages as well as pharmaceutical products that can include pills, powders, caplets, tablets, liquids, oral suspensions, and inhalers. In the context of medical equipment, FDA approved materials are key to the design of devices that must be free of contamination.  For analytical equipment it is vital that samples are not contaminated; machines and devices for treatment, such as blood dialysis machines or ventilators, must not have any contaminants that can harm the patient.

Spring Energized Seals with FDA Approved Materials

When spring-energized seals are combined with FDA approved materials, the result is a durable, reliable seal that is safe for use in food processing, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. Three of the most common materials used are UHMW PE, Virgin PTFE, and mineral-filled PTE


UHMW PE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene) is an FDA and USDA engineering polymer with an extremely low coefficient of friction, low moisture absorption, and good chemical compatibility. In addition, it can withstand rigorous sterilization requirements that may involve hot water, steam, or aggressive chemicals. One of its key characteristics is its self-lubrication, which eliminates the need for lubricants that could cause contamination issues.

Virgin PTFE

PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) often goes by the trade name Teflon. Virgin PTFE, which has no fillers added, has the lowest coefficient of friction of any material in existence. It is also one of the most chemically inert engineering polymers and handles extreme temperatures (both cold and hot) and is both thermally and dimensionally stable. Like UHMW PE, it is also FDA and USDA approved as well as self-lubricating.

Mineral-Filled PTFE

Mineral-filled PTFE takes the outstanding properties of PTFE and enhances them for improved wear performance and strength. It, too, is FDA and USDA approved, self-lubricating, a wide range of operating temperature, chemical inertness, and compatibility with even the most aggressive cleaning and sterilization regimens.


Spring-energized seals provide the often mission-critical reliability that is demanded in industries involving food, medicine, and medical treatment. However, they must be matched with an FDA approved polymers such as UHMW PE, virgin PTFE, or mineral-filled PTFE.