by Sara McCaslin, PhD Sara McCaslin, PhD No Comments

The Basics of PVDF

Kynar PVDF (property of Arkema) is a high purity polymer that combines extreme-temperature performance, easy manufacturability, and durability in some of the harshest environments. 

What is PVDF?

PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride or polyvinyl fluoride) is a fluorinated thermoplastic resin that is classified as a specialty polymer whose brand names include Kynar (Arkema), KF (Kureha), and Solef or Hylar (Solvay). This engineering polymer can often be found in environments that involve high purity, hot acid, extremely high temperatures, and/or radiation. 

Where is PVDF Used?

PVDF is used extensively in a wide range of industries. Semiconductor manufacturing makes use of PVDF’s ultra-pure status and its ability to perform in harsh environments that may involve extreme temperatures and aggressive chemicals. Electronics and electricity applications depend on PVDF’s outstanding low smoke emission and fire-resistant properties along with electrical properties for use as wiring insulation.

PVDF’s ability to handle radiation makes it an excellent choice for nuclear waste handling, and its high-temperature performance and chemical compatibility lends itself readily to the oil and gas industry. Because PVDF has excellent high-temperature performance, high purity, and low permeability, excellent strength, and chemical compatibility, it is used extensively in chemical processing.

Purity and FDA approval have made it a popular choice in food and beverage packaging and processing as well as pharmaceutical processing. It is often used in connection with water and wastewater management for similar reasons. PVDF is also used extensively in the medical market and healthcare industry where it is used as a biomaterial for medical textiles, such as hernia meshes, as well as for medical sutures.

The transportation and energy market has begun using PVDF as a binder for cathodes and anodes in HEV/EVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicle/Electric Vehicle). Its chemical compatibility and anti-corrosion properties make it useful as a barrier liner for fuel lines and tanker trailer lines. Aviation also makes ample use of PVDF for wiring harnesses and general coatings

How is PVDF Used?

PVDF is commonly used for several specific types of applications across industries:

  • Pump assemblies
  • Heat exchangers
  • Tanks and vessels
  • Nozzles
  • Sensors and actuators
  • Fittings, pipes, tubing, and valves
  • Membranes, including microfiltration membranes
  • Filters and filter housings
  • Liners and films
  • Cable jacketing and harnessing
  • Biocompatible materials

Key Properties of PVDF

As alluded to in previous sections, PVDF possesses several features of interest to engineers:

  • Extremely high purity with low permeability
  • FDA compliant and non-toxic
  • Excellent heat resistance and thermal stability 
  • Good mechanical properties
  • Resistant to a wide range of aggressive chemicals
  • Resistant to UV exposure, ozone oxidation reactions, and radiation
  • Resistant to the growth of microorganisms
  • Excellent burn characteristics 
  • Good manufacturability
  • One of the lowest melting points of commercial fluoropolymers
  • Excellent electrical properties
  • Excellent abrasion resistance
  • Low density (1.78 gm/cm3)
  • Recyclable

In addition, PVDF offers excellent abrasion resistance, is lightweight, and can be recycled. Also, note that there are additives available for PVDF to enhance its properties and its melt processability.

Purity and FDA Compliance

In addition to being an extremely high purity polymer, PVDF is both FDA compliant and non-toxic while exhibiting very low gas and liquid permeability.

Heat Resistant and Thermal Stability

One of the outstanding features of PVDF lies in its excellent performance, chemical stability, and dimensional stability in high-temperature environments with a service temperature rating of up to 300 F.

Mechanical Properties

Among the outstanding mechanical properties possessed by PVDF are good deflection, tension, compression, and torsion when compared to other fluorinated polymers. In addition, its low rate of water absorption (0.4%) means that it will remain dimensionally stable (not swell) when in a moisture-rich environment. In addition, PVDF has excellent impact strength.

Chemical Compatibility

PVDF is known for its excellent chemical compatibility that includes weak and strong acids (including mineral and organic); alcohols; aromatic and aliphatic solvents; weak bases; hydrocarbons; halogenated compounds; ionic and salt solutions; and oxidants. Its primary weaknesses are caustics, esters, strong bases, and ketones. 

Microorganism Growth

The surface of PVDF is highly resistant to the growth of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and mold. It is also resistant to weathering, grime, and even graffiti (which is why it is often used in the architectural industry).

Burn Characteristics

PVDF has excellent flame and smoke properties, including UL 94 V-0 rating indicating it is both non-flammable and self-extinguishing along, or more specifically “Burning stops within 10 seconds on a vertical specimen; drips of particles allowed as long as they are not inflamed.” In addition, certain grades of PVDF also possess an excellent flame spread/smoke developed rating of 25/50 (when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84).

Manufacturability

PVDF is also highly manufacturable and melt-processable, lending itself to precision machining, rotomolding, compression molding, injection molding, and extrusion as well as subsequent welding and fabrication. Its ability to be used in molding is primarily due to its low melting point of 352 F, compared to PTFE at 621 F or FEP at 517 F.

Electrical Properties

In addition to electrochemical stability, PVDF also possesses a very high dielectric constant (280 volts per meter) and a high piezoelectric constant. In fact, it possesses both piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties.

Conclusion

One of the polymers we work with here at Advanced EMC is PVDF Kynar made by Arkema. If you are interested in Kynar, have questions about its usage and processing, or need a quote, feel free to contact us and we will have one of our experts respond right away.

by Jackie Johnson Jackie Johnson No Comments

Fluoropolymers in the Food Industry

High-performance fluoropolymers are incredibly vital for use in food and drink manufacturing industries. Setting them apart from general-purpose plastic such as PVC and PE, fluoroplastics enjoy a range of unique properties:

  • Thermal: Resistant to very low and very high working temperatures
  • Chemical: Total resistance to chemicals and solvents
  • Mechanical: Low friction, non-stick characteristics and tensile strength
  • Environmental: Resistant to weather, UV light and corrosion
  • Health: Non-toxic and high purity

Fluoropolymers such as PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene), FEP (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene) and PFA (Perfluoroalkoxy Alkane) bring an abundance of benefits to the food and drink production, from cooking equipment to food coverings, conveyor belt rollers, UV lamp coatings, temperature sensor casing and non-stick surface covers. Because of this, fluoropolymers have kept products uncontaminated, workers safe and production running smoothly for years now.

In this week’s blog post, we will discuss the various ways the fluoropolymers are used in the food industry.

Beverage Dispensing

The requirement for a biologically harmless tubing product coupled with intermittent high temperatures over a long period of time present a challenge for hot beverage dispensing machines. Fluoropolymers such as PTFE and FEP are used as a tried and tested, FDA, NSF and EU compliant solution. Build of residue is greatly reduced due to the smooth internal surfaces provided by fluoropolymer materials. Not only are they FDA compliant, but they are low maintenance as well!

Food Packaging

In packaging and processing food, it is extremely important that the materials used are safe. As such, fluoropolymers such as PVDF, or Polyvinylidene Fluoride Fluoropolymer, are highly regarded in the food packaging industry for a variety of reasons. First, they are incredibly stable materials, and highly resistant to most chemicals, mineral acids, organic acids and other food preservatives. In addition, they are non-toxic and resistant to bacterial and fungi growth.

PVDF is particularly useful in food processing industry due to its unique chemical resistance when temperatures go as high as 300 degrees Fahrenheit (or around 149 degrees Celsius).

PTFE Coatings

With the invention of PTFE, also known as Teflon, non-stick and low friction coatings have played a vital role across the food industry.

For years, PTFE has been used as a coating for cooking applications where particularly sticky or abrasive products are used, such as commercial waffle irons, bread pans, mixers and beaters, hoppers, dough rollers and blades. This allows them to function much more effectively, and the use of oils or other release agents can be substantially reduced or even eliminated.

With ease of use also comes ease of cleaning, and PTFE coating can reduce the intensity and frequency of the cleaning process. It also acts as a hygienic barrier between the food and the surface of the component. These combined save significant employee time and effort, which ultimately reduces labor costs, saving both time AND money.

Belt Conveyors

In the cooking and food processing industries, belts and conveyers made with PTFE coatings are used for mass-produced foods such as bacon, chicken, hamburgers and eggs.

Because of its nonstick properties, the PTFE coating allows food to easily come off, with little mess. This facilitates a high volume of production for commercial food processors.

Industrial Bakeware

Fluoropolymer coatings assure high-quality coating solutions for bakeware used by industrial bakeries. This helps bakeries not only drive efficiency, but also improve the hygiene and safety of their operations. It also improves the quality of the final baked product, with less waste and less butter and/or grease used to keep the product from sticking to the pan.

Home Cookware Manufacturing

We have talked about how fluoropolymers are across the commercial industry, but they are just as equally prevalent in our homes as well.

The use of nonstick pans has been popular in homes since the 1950s, when a French engineer begun coating his fishing gear with Teflon to prevent tangles. His wife then suggested using the same method to coat her cooking pans. In 1956 the Tefal company was formed and began manufacturing non-stick pans.

And nonstick cookware is popular to manufacture as they can be machined and coated relatively easily.

Other Uses

As discussed, fluoropolymers have many uses in the food industry, and many more that we did not cover. Some of these include

  • Shatterproof Coatings for Heat Lamps
  • Encapsulated Temperature Sensors
  • FEP Roll Covers
  • Laser Marked and Printed Tubes for Identification
  • And more!

In Conclusion

With the strength and versatility of fluoropolymers, it is no wonder that it is such a popular material within the food and drink industries.

Because of its high temperature and chemical resistance, nonstick and non-toxic surface, many health organizations have recognized it’s inherit value and, as such, have made fluoropolymers the gold standard within the food industry.

To learn more about fluoropolymers, visit our page by clicking the link here. And if you need PTFE sealing solutions, contact us today!

by Sara McCaslin, PhD Sara McCaslin, PhD No Comments

Why PTFE Rotary Shaft Seals Are a Great Choice for Food Processing Applications

While there are several options when it comes to approved polymeric or elastomeric seals for food processing applications, PTFE is one of the more popular choices–and that includes rotary shaft seals, as well.

Why are PTFE rotary shaft seals good for food processing applications? Rotary shaft seals for food processing equipment have to do more than an ordinary seal:  they also need to withstand aggressive cleaning and sanitation regimens that may involve corrosive chemicals, be approved for contact with food, and offer effective, reliable performance. 

How PTFE Rotary Shaft Seals are Used in Food Processing Applications

Food processing machines that make use of shaft seals include mixers, food portioning equipment, dry product filling systems, ice cream dispensers, milk dispensers, high-pressure homogenizers, water purification equipment, and distilled water pumps. They may be used with adhesives, flavorings, water, powders, preservatives, sauces, condiments, steam, and various fluids.

Operating Conditions

Rotary shaft seals for use in the food processing industry must be able to handle the standard operating conditions involved such as speed, temperature, and pressure. However, their operating environment can involve more than that: consideration has to be given to the type of media they will be exposed to (e.g., powders, extremely viscous fluids). 

PTFE is one of the polymers that have a proven track record with rotary shaft seals that have to function over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and speeds, with various grades available that can offer more customized performance.

CIP/SIP

Rotary shaft seals must withstand the sterilization or cleaning procedures involved. CIP (Clean in Place), SIP (Sterilize in Place), and COP (Clean Out of Place) methods often require aggressive cleaning agents and/or superheated steam, powerful disinfectants, and potentially corrosive acids. 

PTFE is highly resistant to a wide range of aggressive chemicals, can handle repeated exposure to hot water and superheated steam, and will not react chemically to the powerful disinfectants and sanitizers that food processing equipment is exposed to.

Safe for Contact with Food

Any part of a rotary shaft seal that comes into contact with food must conform to the appropriate regulations, such as  FDA 21 CFR 177.1680, (EC) No. 1935/2004, and/or USP Class VI. Such approval is not easy to achieve: it takes into account whether the material releases any chemicals, tends to absorb moisture, goes through physical changes when exposed to high temperatures, reacts chemically to ingredients that are acidic, exhibits off-gassing, and more. 

PTFE comes in grades that are fully compliant with regulations regarding contact with food and FDA approved, making it a safe choice for rotary shaft seals for food processing equipment. In addition, it is the most chemically unreactive polymer on the market today.

Conclusion

Finally, PTFE rotary shaft seals have proven themselves to be highly reliable, which is why you will see them used in dangerous, mission-critical applications where safety and ruggedness are vital, such as those found in the oil and gas or aerospace industries. If you are looking for an FDA-approved rotary shaft seal for use in food processing applications, PTFE seals should be at the top of your list.